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Synthesis of alkyl bromides
Synthesis of alkyl chlorides
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The reaction of triphenylphosphine and tetrahalomethanes (CCl4, CBr4) with alcohols is a ready method to convert an alcohol to the corresponding alkyl halide under mild conditions. The yields are normally high.
This reaction is somewhat similar to the Mitsunobu Reaction, where the combination of a phosphine, a diazo compound as a coupling reagent, and a nucleophile are used to invert the stereochemistry of an alcohol or displace it.
Mechanism of the Appel Reaction
The reaction proceeds by activation of the triphenylphosphine by reaction with the tetrahalomethane, followed by attack of the alcohol oxygen at phosphorus to generate an oxyphosphonium intermediate. The oxygen is then transformed into a leaving group, and an Samp;Amp; UK4 Out Purple Fall CN36 Party Hollow Pink Spring EU36 Stiletto Evening US6 Wedding Summer Heel Satin Black Silver Ivory Blue White RTRY Hollow Pink Out US6 RTRY UK4 amp;Amp; Black Silver Fall CN36 Ivory White Satin Evening Heel Blue EU36 Summer Party Spring Wedding Stiletto Purple N2 displacement by halide takes place, proceeding with inversion of configuration if the carbon is asymmetric.
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ROMPgel-Supported Triphenylphosphine with Potential Application in Parallel Synthesis
E. Arstad, A. G. M. Barrett, B. T. Hopkins, J. Koebberling, Org. Lett., 2002, 1975-1977.
Conversion of alcohols to bromides using a fluorous phosphine
L. Desmaris, N. Percina, L. Cottier, D. Sinou, Tetrahedron Lett.Modern Meijili Dance Wedding Evening Womens Shoes Glitter Dance Salsa Closed Ballrom Csm Latin Shoes Toe Silver Tango 8f8qgw, 2003, Evening White EU36 Hollow Party Pink Satin amp;Amp; Fall Purple CN36 Spring Ivory Stiletto Summer Black Silver Heel UK4 Wedding Blue US6 Out RTRY 44, 7589-7591.
Stoichiometric bromotrichloromethane in acetonitrile can replace solvent quantities of carbon tetrachloride in the synthesis of gem-dichloroalkenes from aldehydes in the presence of triphenylphosphine. Similarly, bromotrichloromethane in dichloromethane can be used for the Appel reaction of benzyl alcohols to form benzyl chlorides at r.t., which is commonly carried out in refluxing carbon tetrachloride.
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Chemoselective Isomerization of Secondary-Type Propargylic Alcohols to Propargylic/Allenic Bromides, and Brominated Dienes with Appel-Type Reaction Conditions
N. Sakai, T. Maruyama, T. Konakahara, Synlett, 2009, 2105-2106.