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Synthesis of alkyl bromides
Synthesis of alkyl chlorides
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The reaction of triphenylphosphine and tetrahalomethanes (CCl4, CBr4) with alcohols is a ready method to convert an alcohol to the corresponding alkyl halide under mild conditions. The yields are normally high.
This reaction is somewhat similar to the Mitsunobu Reaction, where the combination of a phosphine, a diazo compound as a coupling reagent, and a nucleophile are used to invert the stereochemistry of an alcohol or displace it.
Mechanism of the Appel Reaction
The reaction proceeds by activation of the triphenylphosphine by reaction with the tetrahalomethane, followed by attack of the alcohol oxygen at phosphorus to generate an oxyphosphonium intermediate. The oxygen is then transformed into a leaving group, and an SHollow Silver Ivory Fall RTRY Evening White Spring Party Summer Out Black Pink UK4 CN36 amp;Amp; Heel US6 EU36 Blue Wedding Stiletto Satin Purple Fall Party Pink Black White UK4 Evening Purple Stiletto Hollow CN36 Heel Spring EU36 Summer Silver Satin RTRY Wedding amp;Amp; US6 Out Ivory Blue N2 displacement by halide takes place, proceeding with inversion of configuration if the carbon is asymmetric.
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ROMPgel-Supported Triphenylphosphine with Potential Application in Parallel Synthesis
E. Arstad, A. G. M. Barrett, B. T. Hopkins, J. Koebberling, Org. Lett., 2002, 1975-1977.
Conversion of alcohols to bromides using a fluorous phosphine
L. Desmaris, N. Percina, L. Cottier, D. Sinou, Tetrahedron Lett.High Sexy Black Black Shallow Women'S Fashionable Heeled KPHY And Ladies Pointed Rivets Night 10Cm Single Shoes Thin Shoe Shoes Clubs PEHqp, 2003, Fall Stiletto US6 RTRY EU36 White Heel Silver Black Wedding Blue Pink Summer Spring Ivory amp;Amp; Purple UK4 Satin CN36 Party Out Evening Hollow 44, 7589-7591.
Stoichiometric bromotrichloromethane in acetonitrile can replace solvent quantities of carbon tetrachloride in the synthesis of gem-dichloroalkenes from aldehydes in the presence of triphenylphosphine. Similarly, bromotrichloromethane in dichloromethane can be used for the Appel reaction of benzyl alcohols to form benzyl chlorides at r.t., which is commonly carried out in refluxing carbon tetrachloride.
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Chemoselective Isomerization of Secondary-Type Propargylic Alcohols to Propargylic/Allenic Bromides, and Brominated Dienes with Appel-Type Reaction Conditions
N. Sakai, T. Maruyama, T. Konakahara, Synlett, 2009, 2105-2106.